This resource is an archived version of the Readability Guidelines.

New wiki is at:
Go to the Ampersands page.


Use the word 'and' instead of the ampersand sign, '&', unless it is an academic reference, a company’s name as it appears on the Companies House register or when referring to a logo image, for example M&S.

Usability evidence

GOV.UK Style Guide A to Z UK Government website

"What is preferred to use in alt text “&” or “&” for screenreader users?", 2010

'What Character Was Removed From The Alphabet?' 2011

'Why Don’t Screen Readers Always Read What’s on the Screen? Part 1: Punctuation and Typographic Symbols', 2014

Etymonline entry on ampersand, 2017

'Punctuation & Grammar: Bridging the Gap Between UX and Copywriting' 2017

'Analyzing the Ampersand: When to use “and” versus “&” in UX writing.' 2018

Ampersands, Oxford English Dictionary. Needs subscription

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